«SOUTH-EAST BORDERLANDS»

Breakdown of the borderlands into regions[voivodeships] during the first half of the seventeenth century
(In Memory and Identity of Borderland Catholics)

The term ‘borderland’ currently is associated, in general, as the eastern areas of the Polish state before World War II. If the written or spoken phrase is used without any additional terms, though rare, it is synonymous with the term Eastern Borderlands. Complementary phrases are generally used only when it is necessary to indicate a different meaning of the term. In which case we have the South-East Borderlands, North-Eastern Borderlands, and to a lesser extent, the Western Borderlands.

The word ‘borderland’ often leaves many people in reverie, and awakens the memory of its former glory of the Republic. The term ‘borderlands’ referred to areas lying on the eastern borders of the Republic, but with increasing time and historical transformation - political borderland areas underwent a contraction. At the beginning of the seventeenth century, the borderlands were determined at the end of the Polish state borders. The word was used to emphasize the edge of the state- the area lying between the Dniester and the Dnieper rivers, which was characterized by the presence of constant danger, mainly from the Tartars. It is worth noting that at this time the area of ​​the land was much closer to the western border of the Republic than the east. Today, the distance from Przemysl to the Polish eastern border is 12 km, but during the early seventeenth century, the distance had reached 1,000 km.

After Poland regained independence in 1918, understanding of the borderlands region had changed considerably, since there was no reference to Poland pre- partition, but only to the actual boundaries of the new Polish state. Then the borderlands became associated with the eastern provinces of the neighboring Soviet Socialist Republics. To these provinces were included: Stanislawow, Tarnopol, Volhynia, Polesie, Novgorodian and Vilnius; part of the Lviv region was also considered as a borderland, though its position differed significantly from the Borderlands during the partitions. The scope of the borderlands has changed again after World War II when the Polish border could be found in today's outline. The eastern Polish border was withdrawn more than 200 km to the west. Today’s borderlands are equated with those lost lands of the Republic, which now belong to Ukraine, Belarus, and Lithuania, while significantly less often associated with the borders as they were during the noble Republic.

http://www.sciesielski.republika.pl/
http://przemysl-bieszczady.pl/

Lesser-Poland province The Polish Crown during the First Republic; the legal-administrative component of the Polish-Lithuanian state to 1795. Krakow was the capital of the province. All the Polish-Lithuanian provinces share common ties when in 1347 Casimir the Great awarded separate statutes, occurring historiography as the " wiślicko-piotrkowski statutes "[ for Greater and Lesser Poland], and even deeper ties in the Regional breakdown. After the Union of Lublin, in addition to the province of Lesser-Poland, the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth was divided into the Greater-Poland province and the province of Lithuania.

The composition of the province of Lesser-Poland

  • region of Cracow - 1010
  • Lublin region - 1478
  • Sandomierz region - 1120
  • region of Belz - 1436
  • Braclaw region– 1570
  • Czernihowski region - 1570
  • Kiev Region - 1471
  • Podlaskie region- 1569
  • Podolian region - 1569
  • Russian region - 1437
  • region of Volhynia - 1569

Kyiv Region

Kiev Region - the region of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, created by Casimir Jagiellon, existing in the years 1471-1569. Since the Union of Lublin [1] [2], part of the Lesser-Poland province, the province of the Crown and the Republic- existed until 1793.

Kiev was captured by the army of the Duke Gediminas in 1320. In fear that the province would become hereditary under the rule of one family, in 1471 the Lithuanians abolished the title of the duchy, while choosing Martin Gasztold first governor of Kiev.

In the summer of 1482 Crimean Khan Mengli Giray, at the instigation of Prince Ivan III, attacked the lands of Kiev. On September 1 he took the castle, and burned the cathedral and churches while capturing many people. During the siege, the governor of Kiev, Jan Chodkiewicz, together with his wife was taken prisoner. After this victory, the prince of Kiev and the Crimean Khan, in 1493, held a joint march through the land of Kiev to the city of Kiev.

After the Union of Lublin in 1569, these lands were incorporated into the Crown- [‘of all principality of Kiev Oney lands władzey obywatelów from obedience, duty y rozkazowania W. Fr. Lit. Wieczyne at times we do wolnemi wyymuiemy y y toward the Polish kingdom, the title of the crown were to resume connectors].

In 1591, under the leadership of Christopher Kosinski, the Cossack uprising took place. Kosinski rounded up 5000 Cossacks and proclaiming himself their Ataman, went to attack Ostrog. On December 29, 1591 he took the White Church, where he took and destroyed documents and privileges relating to the lands of the Kiev region. Kosinski’s Private conflict soon turned into a nationwide uprising of Cossacks and peasants, titled from the name of their leader - the Kosinski uprising.

The province was ceded to Russia for two years after January 30, 1667 after the Andruszow peace talks. In the year 1686 there was signed yet another peace treaty by the leader of Poznań Krzysztof Grzymułtowski, who indefinitely bestowed the Kiev region to Russia.

Initially, the capital of the province was, according to its name, Kiev. In 1667 was lost a large part of the province and the capital city. The name of the region did not change, and its actual capital became Zytomierz. Major castles correlated with historical events include the White church, Baturyn, and Czehryń. Till 1667 it was divided into districts of Kiev and Owrucki.

From the isolated Polish lands and the province of Kiev was founded the Kiev Governorate, in 1708. Because of the long reign of Poland over these lands, till 1852 the Russian frontier governorates Półtawska and Kiev were called "Poland" [3].

  1. Church of St. John The Baptist. Bila Cerkva
    Adamovych Roman, canva, oil, 60 x 100, Kyiv, 2006
  2. Church in Volodarca
    Alekseev Alexander, canva, oil, 80 x 70, Kyiv, 2007
  3. Church in Didivshchyna
    Fortuna Illia, canva, oil, 70 x 80, Kyiv, 2007
  4. Church in Kodnya
    Franchuk Valery, canva, oil, 64 x 68, Kyiv, 2007
  5. Chapel in Tahancha
    Franchuk Valery, canva, oil, 56 x 71, Kyiv, 2007
  6. Church in Chudnov
    Skrynnyk Alexander, canva, oil, 55 x 70, Kyiv, 2006
  7. Church of the Holy Trinity. Stawysche
    Skrynnyk Alexander, canva, oil, 70 x 100, Kyiv, 2007
  8. Church of St. Anthony of Padua. Stara Kotelnya
    Yuryev Igor, canva, oil, 64 x 70, Chernivci, 2008
  9. Church of St. John Nepomucena. Bilolivka
    Korsun Dmytro, canva, oil, 78,8 x 60, Kyiv, 2008
  10. The Church in Skvyra
    Korsun Dmytro, canva, oil, 60 x 85, Kyiv, 2008

City of Kiev

  1. Of the Kiev Cathedral in the XVII th.
    Adamovych Roman, canva, oil, 80 x 80, Kyiv, 2005
  2. Church of St. Alexandra. Kyiv
    Aleksandrovych Andriy, canva, acrylic, 90 x 90, Kyiv, 2005
  3. Nican Church of St. Nicholas
    Baroyants Setrak, monotype, 63 x 45, Kyiv, 1979
  4. Church in Kyiv Castle
    Markov Boris, canva, oil, 60 x 80, Kyiv 2007
  5. Church of St. Joseph. Kyiv
    Markov Boris, canva, oil, 60 x 80, Kyiv 2007
  6. Nican Church of St. Nicholas. Kyiv
    Nagorna Ludmila, canva, oil, 70 x 80, Kyiv, 2006
  7. „Avian conspiracy” Church of St. Alexandra. Kyiv
    Slavinski Alexander, ofort, 30 x 40, Kyiv, 2005
  8. Chapel of the Universiti of St. Vladimir. Kyiv
    Tverdoy Anatoly, canva, oil, 60x70, Kyiv, 2006
  9. Church of St. Nicholas. Kiev
    Tverdoy Anatoly, canva, oil, 70 x 60, Kyiv, 2005
  10. The Franciscan Church. Kyiv
    Vysheslavski Glib, canva, oil, 65 x 70, Kyiv, 2005

Bratslavsky Region

Braclaw Province - the province of the I Republic, part of Lesser-Poland. Founded in 1566, at the sejm in Lublin in the year 1569, was joined to the Crown [1]. The capital was Braclaw, however, an informal provincial base of the governors became Winnica. The first governor was Roman Sanguszko. In 1589, the voivodship was given a coat of arms - a blue shield with a gold crescent on a red cross. The region was divided into two districts: Vinnytsia and Bratslav (consisting of two circuits: Bratslav and zwinogrodzki). Braclaw Region had two main senators: a governor, and Castellan. There were six members elected Parliament, that is, two from each county, maintaining nominally, though not actually, zwinogrodzki county. Braclaw Region lay in Ukranian Podolia [1], in contrast to Podolia proper, which covered the Podolian region. In 1791, Sejm formally created the fourth district nadbohski, but due to the war with Russia and the partitioning, the decision was not implemented [2].

  1. Dominican Church. Tulchyn
    Voronowich Malgorzata, canva, oil, 80 x 60, Warsaw 2007
  2. Franciscans Church. Komargrod
    Yuryev Igor, canva, oil, 64 x 70, Chernivci, 2008

Winnica

  1. Jesiut Church. Vinnitsa
    Firtsak Boris, canva, acrylic, 77 x 138, Kyiv, 2006
  2. Dominican Church. Vinnytsa
    Nagorna Ludmila, canva, oil, 62 x 45, Kyiv, 2006

Podolski Region

Podolian Province - the province of the Crown of the Polish Kingdom of Lesser Poland, formed in 1434 from the territory of Podolia, connected to the Polish Kingdom back in the fourteenth century. Transformed after 1793 to the Podolian province of the Russian Empire. The mayor was governor Kamieniecki, who also was subject to a castle in Latyczowie. The seat of the regional council and parliamentart was in Kamieniec Podolski. In light of the Turkish occupation of Podolia in the period 1672-1676 local, councils were held in Halicz, and in the years 1677-1698, in Lviv [1]

The boundaries of the region:

From the river Strypy to Volochysk to Januszpola. From the East of Murachwa River. Southern border of Wallachia was the Dniester, and the western from Pokuttia, the river Dniester and Stypa.

  1. Church of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary. Yazliwets
    Yuryev Igor, canva, oil, 90 x 100, Chernivci, 2007
  2. Church of John Nepomuk. Stara Sienyava
    Rybachuk Maryna, canva, oil, 73 x 60, Kyiv, 2008

City Kamyanets-Podolski

  1. Cathedral Church of the Peter and Paul. Kamyanets-Podolski
    Ivanov-Akhmetov Volodymyr, zincograph, Kyiv
  2. Castle Bridge. Kamynets-Podolski
    Ivanov-Akhmetov Volodymyr, zincograph, Kyiv
  3. Castle. Kamyanets-Podolski
    Ivanov-Akhmetov Volodymyr, zincograph, Kyiv
  4. Dominican Church. Kamieniec-Podolski
    Moskovchenko Sergiy, canva, oil, 40 x 60, Kyiv, 2006
  5. Church of the Discalced Carmelites. Kamyanets-Podolski
    Popinova Oxana, canva, oil, 50 x 70, Kyiv, 2006
  6. Franciscan Church. Kamyanets-Podolski
    Skrynnyk Alexander, canva, oil, 55 x 55, Kyiv, 2006
  7. Trinitarian Church. Kamyanets-Podolski
    Jeliseyev Igor, canva, oil, 50 x 100, Kyiv, 2006

Volyn Region

Volynia Province - the province of the Crown and the Republic, part of Lesser-Poland. Founded in 1566, joined to the Crown [1] at the sejm of Lublin in the year 1569. Lasted till the Third Polish Partition in 1795, the province coat of arms was a white cross on a red field with a shield and heart with a white eagle. There were 3 Senators in the province of Volhynia: the bishop of Luck, a governor, and Castellan. Region was divided into three districts: Luck, Vladimir and Krzemieniecki. Each of these districts had their city starosta in the county in the district. Sejm elections were in the province in Lutsk- choosing from each district two members of the Sejm and one depute.

  1. Church p.w. Exaltation of the Cross. Novgorod-Volhynia (Zwiahel)
    Aleksandrovych Andriy, canva, acrylic, 90 x 90, Kyiv, 2005
  2. Jesuit Church. Ostrog
    Fortuna Illia, canva, oil, 65 x 75, Kyiv, 2006
  3. Church of the Nativity of the Blessed Virgin Mary and St. Anthony of Padua. Rivne
    Franchuk Valery, canva, oil, 73 x 73, Kyiv, 2006
  4. Franciscan Church. Shumsk
    Franchuk Valery, canva, oil, 73 x 73, Kyiv, 2006
  5. Church Dominicans. Starokostantynów
    Franchuk Valery, canva, oil, 75 x 67 Kyiv, 2007
  6. Holy Trinity Church. Nevirkiv
    Franchuk Valery, canva, oil, 67 x 74, Kyiv, 2007
  7. Sending of the Apostles Church. Vladimir-Volhynia
    Franchuk Valery, canva, oil, 56 x 67, Kyiv, 2007
  8. Raising of the Holy Cross Church. Velyki Dederkaly
    Gavrylenko Katheryna, canva, oil, 60 x 70, Kyiv, 2007
  9. Church of the Holy Trinity. Mezhyrich
    Gavrylenko Katheryna, canva, oil, 65 x 75, Kyiv, 2007
  10. Church in Berestechko
    Ivanov-Akhmetov Volodymyr, map, monotype, a marker, 45 x 35, Kyiv, 2006
  11. Church of the Immaculate Conception of the Blessed Virgin Mary. Dubno
    Kaniwets Igor, paper, ink pen, Kyiv, 2006
  12. Holy Trinity Church. Ostrog
    Koltsov Alexander, canva, oil, 50 x 70, Kyiv, 2007
  13. Dominican Church. Staryi Chartorysk
    Mucha Mykhailo, canva, oil, 60 x 80, Kyiv 2007
  14. Church Dominicans. Podkamin
    Pryduvalova Olena, canva, oil, 85 x 70, Kyiv, 2006
  15. Church oo. Franciscans. Korets
    Sleta Oxana, canva, oil, 80 x 60, Kyiv, 2006
  16. Church of St. Stanislaus Bishop and Martyr in Kovel
    Chilko Igor, canva, oil, 65 x 50, Kyiv, 2008
  17. Chapel at the Grocholskis palace. Hryciv
    Chilko Igor, canva, oil, 65 x 50, Kyiv, 2008
  18. Carmelite Church. Vyshnevets
    Rybachuk Maryna, canva, oil, 60 x 73, Kyiv, 2008
  19. Holy Trinity Church and Saint Michael the Archangel. Poryck
    Firtsak Boris, canva, acrylic, 76 x 100, Kyiv, 2008
  20. Church of St. Anthony. Velyki Mezhyrichi
    Davydenko Valentina, canva, acrylic, 71 x 61, Kyiv, 2007
  21. Church of the Immaculate Conception of the Virgin Mary. Kyselyn
    Firtsak Boris, canva, acrylic, 77 x 143, Kyiv, 2006
  22. Church of St. Stanislaus and St. Ann. Lukiv
    Yuryev Igor, canva, oil, 60 x 80, Chernivci, 2007
  23. Church of the Holy Trinity. Mezhyrich
    Popov Volodymyr, canva, oil, 60 x 80, Kyiv, 2007

City of Kremenets

  1. High School Church. Kremenets
    Ivanov-Akhmetov Volodymyr, zincograph, Kyiv
  2. Franciscan Church. Kremenets
    Firtsak Boris, canva, acrylic, 82 x 107, Kyiv, 2007
  3. High School Church. Kremenets
    Vysheslavski Glib, canva, oil, 65 x 75, Kyiv, 2006

Lutsk

  1. Dominican Church. Lutsk
    Firtsak Boris, canva, acrylic, 76 x 120, Kyiv, 2007
  2. Holy Trinity Church. Lutsk
    Gavrylenko Katheryna, canva, oil, 75 x 85, Kyiv, 2006
  3. Carmelite Church. Lutsk
    Yuryev Igor, canva, oil, 70 x 80, Chernivci, 2007
  4. Church Jesuits. Lutsk
    Moskovchenko Sergiy, canva, oil, 40 x 50, Kyiv, 2006
  5. Church Bernardine. Lutsk
    Zavalny Mykhajlo, ink, pen, paper, Kyiv 2006

Russian Region

Russian Province - Province of the Kingdom of the Crown of Lesser-Poland, an administrative unit of the Polish Kingdom in the period of the Republic that existed in the years 1434-1772. Region was set up by the privilege of King Wladyslaw II Jagiello. All the Polish-Lithuanian provinces have their source in the giving in 1347 by Casimir the Great separate statutes occurring historiography as the "wiślicko-piotrkowski statutes" for the Greater and Lesser Poland, and even deeper source in the district divisions. After the Union of Lublin, the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth was divided into provinces of Lesser-Poland, Grester-Poland, and the Lithuanian Province.

The legal system is based on the Magdeburg law. Lviv was the capital of the province; the general local councils were held in the Judiciary province of Wisznia. The diocese of Przemysl has existed since 1340, the diocese of Chelm was created in 1375. In 1412 the Archdiocese of Lviv was created in place of the existing[since 1367] Halicz metropolis.

After the partition, Polish lands were given to Austria, including: Lvov, Przemysl, Rzeszow, Sanok and Belz, and the western part of Podolia (Ternopil). These lands were granted the status of the Crown of Austria with an official name of the Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria (German: Königreich und Lodomerien Galicia). Referring to the title of Rex et Galiciæ

Lodomeriæ, Austrian diplomacy has sought to justify the right of Austrian monarchs - as the heirs to the Hungarian crown - to the occupied lands.

  1. Church of St. Joseph. Podhorce
    Alekseev Alexander, canva, oil, 60 x 70, Kyiv, 2006
  2. Church of the Holy Trinity. Dolyna
    Davydenko Valentina, canva, acrylic, 65 x 65, Kyiv, 2007
  3. Church of St. Lazarus. Zhovkva
    Demenko Anatoly, canva, oil, 60 x 80, Kyiv, 2007
  4. Church of the Ascension of Jesus. Navaria
    Franchuk Valery, canva, oil, 73 x 73, Kyiv, 2006
  5. Church Dominicans. Pidkamin
    Franchuk Valery, canva, oil, 73 x 73, Kyiv, 2006
  6. St. Joseph Church. Olesko
    Franchuk Valery, canva, oil, 73 x 73, Kyiv, 2006
  7. Church of St. Martin. Skelevka
    Alekseev Alexander, canva, oil, 70 x 60, Kyiv, 2006
  8. Church of St. Michael.Stara Sil
    Franchuk Valery, canva, oil, 66 x 82, Kyiv, 2007
  9. Carmelite Church. Terebovla
    Franchuk Valery, canva, oil, 50 x 83, Kyiv, 2007
  10. Church of the Holy Spirit. Chervonograd
    Franchuk Valery, canva, oil, 54 x 78, Kyiv, 2007
  11. Kościół Karmelitów, Drohobycz
    Franchuk Valery, canva, oil, 50 x 83, Kyiv, 2007
  12. Church Of the immaculate Conception of the Blessed Virgin Mary. Horodenka
    Franchuk Valery, canva, oil, 72 x 61, Kyiv, 2007
  13. Dominican Church. Ternopil
    Gavrylenko Katheryna, canva, oil, 69 x 89, Kyiv, 2006
  14. Church of Sts. Stanislaus Bernardine (former Jesuit). Sambor
    Gavrylenko Katheryna, canva, oil, 75 x 85, Kyiv, 2006
  15. Castle. Olesko
    Ivanov-Akhmetov Volodymyr, zincograph, Kyiv
  16. Senyavski Castle. Berezhany
    Ivanov-Akhmetov Volodymyr, zincograph, Kyiv
  17. Town Hall. Sambor
    Ivanov-Akhmetov Volodymyr, zincograph, Kyiv
  18. Church of the St. Bartholomew. Drohobych
    Ivanov-Akhmetov Volodymyr, zincograph, Kyiv
  19. Koniecpolski Castle. Podhorce
    Ivanov-Akhmetov Volodymyr, zincograph, Kyiv
  20. Church of the Dominicans. Zhovkva
    Koltsov Alexander, canva, oil, 60 x 80, Kyiv, 2007
  21. Church of the Holy Trinity. Olesko
    Popinova Oxana, canva, oil, 60 x 80, Kyiv, 2006
  22. All Saints Church. Godovica
    Popov Volodymyr, canva, oil, 80 x 60, Kyiv, 2007
  23. Church of Sts. Nicholas. Vyzhnyany
    Pryduvalova Olena, canva, oil, 70 x 85 Kyiv, 2006
  24. Church of the Holy Trinity. Berezhany
    Skrynnyk Alexander, canva, oil, 60 x 80, Kyiv, 2007
  25. Church of the Blessed Virgin Mary. Stanislaviv
    Sleta Oxana, canva, oil, 60 x 70, Kyiv, 2006
  26. Church of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary. Bilyj Kamin
    Alekseev Alexander, canva, oil, 70 x 80, Kyiv, 2007
  27. Church of the Elevation of the Holy Cross. New Milatyn
    Fortuna Illia, canva, oil, 75 x 85, Kyiv, 2006

City of Lviv

  1. Church of Our Lady of Candlemas, Lviv
    Demenko Anatoly, canva, oil, 60 x 80, Kyiv, 2007
  2. Church of St. Elizabeth. Lviv
    Fortuna Illia, canva, oil, 85 x 60, Kyiv, 2006
  3. Church of Sakramentanek. Lviv
    Hanushkevich Cesar, canva, acrylic, 60 x 70, Kyiv, 2007
  4. Franciscan Church. Lviv
    Hanushkevich Cesar, canva, acrylic, 60 x 70, Kyiv, 2007
  5. Lviv Theatre
    Ivanov-Akhmetov Volodymyr, zincograph, Kyiv
  6. Bernardine Church. Lviv
    Ivanov-Akhmetov Volodymyr, zincograph, Kyiv
  7. Armenian Cathedral. Lviv
    Ivanov-Akhmetov Volodymyr, zincograph, Kyiv
  8. Royal Arsenal. Lviv
    Ivanov-Akhmetov Volodymyr, zincograph, Kyiv
  9. Coat of Arms. Lviv
    Ivanov-Akhmetov Volodymyr, zincograph, Kyiv
  10. Church of St. Nicholas. Lviv
    Ivanov-Akhmetov Volodymyr, zincograph, Kyiv
  11. Dominican Church. Lviv
    Ivanov-Akhmetov Volodymyr, zincograph, Kyiv
  12. Church of the Discalced Carmelites. Lviv
    Ivanov-Akhmetov Volodymyr, pen ink, 40 x 30, Kyiv, 2006
  13. Jesuit Church. Lviv
    Moskovchenko Sergiy, canva, oil, 54 x 72, Kyiv, 2006
  14. Klarysek Church. Lviv
    Voronowich Malgorzata, canva, oil, 80 x 60, Warsaw, 2007
  15. Church St. Mary Magdalene. Lviv
    Zavalny Mykhajlo, marker, ink-brush, 47 x 53, Kyiv 2006

Bełzki Region

Belzki Province - the province of the Crown of the Polish Kingdom and the Republic, part of Lesser-Poland, was created in 1462 by Casimir Jagiello IV after joining the Belzki lands to the Polish Crown. The Belzki Region had two main senators- a governor and Castellan, and two less prominent ones, which were the castellans Lubaczowski and Buski. The legal system was based on the Magdeburg law. Emblem of the region was a silver Griffin(a mythological winged lion with the head of an eagle)below a golden crown on a red background, climbing up with its front paws. It ceased to exist after the Second Partition of Poland.

  1. Church of St. Nicholas Dominkanek monastery. Belz
    Hanushkevich Cesar, canva, acrylic, 60 x 70, Kyiv, 2007
  2. Church of Our Lady Bernardine. Sokal
    Jeliseyev Igor, canva, oil, 100 x 50, Kyiv, 2006
  3. Church of the Reformers. Rava-Ruska
    Yuryev Igor, canva, oil, 70 x 80, Chernivci, 2007
  4. Church p.w. Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary. Ugniev
    Slavinski Alexander, author's paper, marker, 30 x 50, Kyiv, 2006
  5. Church of St. Mark. Novoukrainka
    Franchuk Valery, canva, oil, 73 x 73, Kyiv, 2006